History of Western Music (Music 330B)

Review Outline for Midterm No. 1 (Spring Semester 2005)

This review is only an outline, not the answers to the test questions. It may be used to prepare for the final exam in the following ways:

1. Know the significance of each person and the definition of each term, and be able to relate them historically to the music and to one another.

2. Be aware of dates and chronology.

3. Characterize the historical significance of the main headings (those under the roman numerals) in a few sentences.

4. Know the musical selections from the anthology well, such that you can identify the important melodies, not only at the beginning but at important structural points. Listen for the stylistic charateristics that distinguish one work from another and be aware of the overall form for each piece.

The format of the exam will be similar to the midterms from last semester: definitions, short questions, and listening extracts with a question tied to one of them.

Note: NAWM=Norton Anthology of Western Music (nos. 85-90, 92-94, 96-97, 99-100a, 101, 103-104 [omit 91, 95, 98, 100b, 102]). Also the recordings on electronic reserve differ from those on the CDs prepared for the anthology for nos. 87 and 92.

Chapter 13

I. The End of the Baroque

II. Early Classic Period

A. Aspects of 18th-century life

1. public concerts

2. publishing

B. Musical characteristics

1. melodic periodicity

2. harmonic periodicity

3. "style galant"

4. "empfindsamkeit"

III. Opera in the mid-18th Century

A. Comic opera

1. opera buffa

a. self-contained genre by 1709

b. six or seven principals

c. characters based on "commedia dell-arte"

2. intermezzo

a. first examples by 1720

b. two or three characters

c. plot self-contained

d. Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710-1736)

1. La serva padrona, "Son imbrogliato io già" (NAWM 85)

2. "da capo" aria

B. Opera seria

1. Reform trends in Italian opera

a. Apostolo Zeno (1668-1750) -- librettist

b. Pietro Metastasio (1698-1782) -- librettist

c. eliminated comic elements

d. arias at end of scenes ("exit" arias)

2. Johann Adolf Hasse (1699-1783)

a. Cleofide, "Digli ch'io son fedele" (NAWM 86)

b. "da capo" aria

C. Opéra comique

1. "Querelle des bouffons"

2. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), Le devin du village (1752)

D. Ballad opera

1. Characteristics.

a. comic or satirical

b. spoken dialogue

c. new words to popular songs

d. plot concerns "low-lifes"

e. lasted about a decade

2. John Gay (1685-1732)

a. The Beggar's Opera (NAWM 87)

3. Germany

a. first "Singspiel" is translation of a Ballad Opera

E. Reform

1. Important individuals:

a. Francesco Algarotti (1712-1764), "Essay on Opera"

b. Count Giacomo Durazzo (1717-1794) -- manager of the theater

c. Raniero de Calzabigi (1714-1795) -- librettist

d. Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714-1787)

2. Preface to Alceste (pub. 1769)

a. no superfluous ornaments

b. no "da capo" arias

c. overture anticipates the drama

d. less distinction between aria and recitative

3. Orfeo ed Euridice, Act II (excerpt) (NAWM 88)

IV. Instrumental Music

A. Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757)

1. Keyboard sonatas

a. Sonata in D Major, K. 119 (NAWM 89)

b. aspects of sonata form

B. Giovanni Battista Sammartini (1701-1775)

1. Symphony No. 32 in F major (first movement) (NAWM 90)

C. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788)

1. "Empfindsam" style

D. Mannheim School

1. Elector Carl Theodor (reigned 1742-1799)

a. quality of orchestra

b. number of resident composers

c. "It is an army of generals, equally fit to plan a battle as to fight it."

2. Style of symphonies:

a. melodic style (Mannheim "figures")

b. thematic differentiation

c. treatment of wind instruments

d. added "Minuet" movement

3. Johann Wenzel Stamitz (1717-1757)

a. Symphony in E-flat Major, Op. 11, no. 3 (first movement) (NAWM 92)

E. Concerto form

1. Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782)

a. Concerto in E-flat Major, Op. 7, no. 5 (first movement) (NAWM 93)

Chapter 14

I. Franz Joseph Haydn (1732—1809)

A. Musical Career

1. Early years

a. choir boy

b. accompanist and valet to Nicola Porpora (1686—1768)

c. influence of C.P.E. Bach

2. Count Morzin

3. Prince Esterházy

a. Eszterháza

b. baryton

B. Early symphonies

1. Symphony No. 56 in C Major (first movement) (NAWM 94)

2. use of sonata form

C. Later symphonies

1. "London" symphonies

a. Johann Peter Salomon

b. Symphony No. 104 in D Major ("London") (fourth movement) (NAWM 96)

D. String Quartets

1. Not required for Esterházy

a. before 1780 on commission

b. after 1780 for publication

2. Op. 33 (set of six quartets)

a. "written in a quite new and special manner"

b. Op. 33, no. 2 (fourth movement) (NAWM 97)

E. Vocal music

1. Masses

a. written for Prince Nicholas II

b. for Princess's name day (8 September)

c. six Masses

2. Oratorios

a. The Craetion (1798)

b. The Seasons (1801)

II. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)

A. Musical Career

1. Child prodigy

a. tours

b. England and J.C. Bach

2. Salzburg

a. Archbishop Colloredo

b. less opportunity for travel

3. Vienna

a. free-lance musician

b. concerts featuring piano concertos

c. friendship with Haydn

B. Instrumental Music

1. Symphonies

2. String Quartets dedicated to Haydn (the "Haydn" Quartets)

3. Concertos

a. Piano Concerto in A Major, K. 488 (first movement) (NAWM 99)

C. Opera

1. German National Opera (1778-1783)

a. Singspiel

b. Die Entführung aus dem Serial (1782)

2. Reestablishment of Italian Opera

a. Lorenzo da Ponte (1749-1838) -- librettist

b. Le nozze di Figaro (1786)

c. Don Giovanni (1787)

d. Don Giovanni, "Ah, chi mi dice mai" (NAWM 100a)

D. Sacred Music

Chapter 15

I. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)

A. Beethoven in his time.

1. Vienna as musical center

2. shift in patronage

3. Beethoven as central figure

B. First style period (Bonn, early Vienna)

1. reputation as virtuoso and composer

a. genres

b. "Akademie"

2. consolidation of high classical style (Haydn and Mozart)

a. Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (NAWM 101)

C. Second style period ("Heroic")

1. "Heiligenstadt Testament"

2. "new" style

a. Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major, Op. 55 ("Eroica") (NAWM 103)

b. expansion of sonata form

D. Third style period

1. characteristics

a. return to earlier proportions

b. theme and variations

c. contrapuntal techniques

d. improvisatory passages

e. folk-like tunes

f. new ways to balance entire work

2. String Quartet in C-sharp Minor, Op. 131 (NAWM 104)